- 711 Muslim armies from N. Africa invaded Iberian Penins. (controlled by Visigoths)
- Visigoths retreated to NW corner of Spain and created kingdom of Asturias
- rest of Spain controlled by Muslims by Umayyad Spain
- Christian knights in N. fought w/ Muslims in S.
- Saw it as a duty, or a Crusade because they thought of it as a war to regain territory that is rightfully theirs
- invite French noblemen to fight with them but French see it as a religious war
- 1492 Christian forces overrun last of Muslim kingdoms and Columbus begins journey
- showed people that Europeans could beat Arabs
- lasts almost 800 years!