- 1 of 2 of the distinct Mongol realms (during 1260-1500) was the khanate of the Golden Horde (also called Kipchak Khanate), and the other was the Il-Khan Khanate.
- Was established in Southern Russia, North of the Caspian Sea.
- The capitol was at Sarai on the Volga River.
- They quickly established relationships with the Muslim Turkic Nomads there. In the 1260’s its leader, Batu, in Russia became Muslim and had the intention to become the last caliph. He also claimed the Caucus b/w the Black and Caspian Seas. Through this route the Mongols of the Golden Horde had access to the Il-Khan territories and capitol, Tabriz.
- There was conflict b/w the Muslim Golden Horde and Buddhist Il-Khans that resulted in a brief diplomatic correspondence b/w Il-Khan court and Pope Nicholas IV, ambassadors, and Markuz (who toured West Europe in the 1200s).
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